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Endangered, Vulnerable & Threatened Plants of Bahrs Scrub

frontpageWith the assistance of a Logan City Council EnviroGrant and the kind contribution of text and photographs by local botanical expert Glenn Leiper, the Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance is proud to present Endangered, Vulnerable and Near Threatened Flora of Bahrs Scrub , a description of a selection of some of the more spectacular species contaned in the Bahrs Scrub Precinct and under potential risk from development. 

Bahrs Scrub is one of the last remnants of dry lowland rainforest that once prevailed in the Albert and Pimpama River valleys and contains hundreds of spectacular plant species, including several very unusual ones. SBSA is part of a movement to have dry lowland rainforest listed as an endangered ecosystem by the Federal Government and welcomes public support to achieve this recognition.

The booklet is presented to the local community and beyond to increase awareness of these precious exmples of South East Queensland biodiversity which is rapidly dwindling under population and development pressure as well as the random effects of climate change. SBSA welcomes the use of the booklet as an educational resource as well as a reference for informing community requests to authorities to conserve and protect our valuable, unique ecosystems.

 We trust you will enjoy this collection and come to share our appreciation of these priceless, irreplaceable examples of life on planet Earth.

 

 

Draft Flora list by Glenn Leiper

The following list is to be confirmed by formal independent studies, which the SBS Alliance hopes to conduct. Public contributions to funding for SBS Alliance independent studies is deeply appreciated. [Donate here]

 

(Draft Flora lists kindly supplied by Glenn Leiper)

The Flora of Bahrs Scrub 

This list of the local Bahrs Scrub plants has been compiled by Glenn Leiper (November 2009) from the following –

 A. Documents :

  1. “Plant Species List for Eucalypt Forest between Bahrs Scrub Rd, Windaroo and Wuraga Rd, Beenleigh” (G. Leiper, February 1999) in an attachment to a letter to Warren Rowe, Director Planning, Environment and Transport, Gold Coast City Council.
  2. “Botanical Assessment of Lot 1 of RP 67770 and Lot 2 of RP 805126 Windaroo Rd, Windaroo” (G. Leiper, 16 March 1999)
  3. “Botanical Assessment of Lot 2 and Lot 3 (RP 805126) Bahrs Scrub Rd, Windaroo” (G. Leiper, 9 March 1999)
  4. “Plant Species List for Hill and Slopes of Lot 3 on RP 215938 off Bahrs Scrub Rd. (G. Leiper, 26 April 1991)
  5. “Plant Species Census for Lot 1 of RP 67770 Bahrs Scrub Rd, Windaroo” (G.Leiper, 26 April 1991 and 16 March 1999)
  6. “Plant Species Census for Lot RP 805126 Bahrs Scrub Rd, Windaroo” (G. Leiper, 26 April 1991 and 9 March 1999)
  7. “Plant Species Census for Lots 2 & 3 RP 805126 Bahrs Scrub Rd, Windaroo” (G. Leiper, 26 April 1991 and 9 March 1999)
  8. “List of Plants Found on Bahrs Scrub Horizons Estate Prior to Work Commencing” (G. Leiper, undated) compiled from field assessments on what is now a residential estate.
  9. “A Checklist of Plant Species Occurring in Bahrs Scrub & Environs” (Paul Grimshaw NPWS, undated)
  10. “A Checklist of the Rainforest Species Occurring in Bahrs Scrub, 7 km SW of Beenleigh” (G. Guymer & L.W. Jessup, Queensland Herbarium, 25 June 1981)
  11. “Bahrs Hill Collection on Bayer, Boyce, Clark boundary” (G. Leiper, March – May 1984)
  12. “Plant List – Bahrs Scrub and Margins” (G. Guymer, P. Bostock (Qld Herbarium) and L. H. Bird, 12 June 1983)
  13. “Species List of Bahrs Scrub (10 km SW of Beenleigh), section owned by Bayer, Boyce, Clark” (L. H. Bird, 6 May 1984)
  14. “Bahrs Scrub species” (W. McDonald, Qld Herbarium)
  15. “WWF Bahrs Scrub data” (courtesy Qld Herbarium)
  16. “Nature Conservation Mapping Review Project – Stage 1 – Queensland Herbarium CORVEG Data for Secondary Sites” – 2 lists for Bahrs Scrub area
  17. “Ecological Assessment Report at Windaroo Heights Stage 2. Wuraga Road, Bahrs Scrub, for Jordan Brothers Pty Ltd” (Yurrah Pty Ltd May 2004)
  18. “Vegetation and Open Space Management Plan. Lot 42 Wuraga Road - Bahrs Scrub” ( for Westera Partners Pty Ltd May 2002, prepared by Australian Resource Consultants Pty Ltd)
  19. “Wildlife Online Extract” from EPA (Qld Parks & Wildlife Service) 12 Nov 2009

 B. Queensland Herbarium records

 C. Field Observations and photographs by Glenn Leiper 1984 – 2009 

The Flora of Bahrs Scrub

Introduction

 This compilation of plant species records lists all recorded species from the Bahrs Scrub district known to be in the proposed Local Development Area defined by Logan City Council and the State Government.

 There are presently 523 plant species recorded, of which 456 are native species, 3 are naturalized native species, and 64 are exotic weed species. Many more weed species are not recorded as many of the plant lists which have been used for this compilation did not record weeds. It is anticipated that if all weeds along roadsides, in areas adjacent to present residential areas, waterways, and farming land are included then this list will be added to considerably. There is potential for other native species unrecorded to date from the area to be included as forest remnants have more detailed searches performed.

 

The vegetation communities of Bahrs Scrub include mainly Sub-tropical Lowland Rainforest, and Eucalypt Forests. There are also large areas of cleared vegetation.

 

The rainforest communities are classified as Regional Ecosystem 12.11.10 Notophyll vine forest with Araucaria cunninghamii (Hoop Pine) on metamorphics.

 

Although not presently classified as an endangered Regional Ecosystem by EPA, it is recognised as being a significant remnant of what was once a much larger rainforest area that dominated metamorphic soils over the Pimpama River and Albert River valleys. This area at Bahrs Scrub is one of the largest remnants, with 2 other sizeable remnants at Ormeau. However those Ormeau remnants don’t contain 5 of the rare and threatened species listed below. As such the Bahrs Scrub area of rainforest is an important habitat for these species.

 This rainforest community is the habitat for the following nine Rare & Threatened Flora species under the Queensland Nature Conservation Act 1992

 Diploglottis campbellii (Small-leaved Tamarind)        Endangered

Pouteria / Planchonella eerwah (Red Coondoo)       Endangered

Croton mamillatus (Bahrs Scrub Croton)                   Endangered

Solanum mentiens (Bahrs Scrub Devil’s Needles)      Endangered

Fontainea venosa (Veiny Fontainea)                          Vulnerable

Macadamia integrifolia (Macadamia Nut)                  Vulnerable

Choricarpia subargentea (Giant Ironwood)               Rare

Cupaniopsis newmanii (Long-leaved Tuckeroo)        Rare

Symplocos harroldii (Hairy Hazelwood)                    Rare

 This is a very high concentration of rare and threatened species for one small area.

 Six of the above listed species are listed in the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Federal Government). They are –

 Diploglottis campbellii                        Endangered

Pouteria (Planchonella) eerwah         Endangered

Croton mamillatus                              Endangered, pending nomination

Solanum mentiens                               Endangered, pending nomination

Fontainea venosa                                Vulnerable

Macadamia integrifolia                       Vulnerable

 The rainforests of the district (Pimpama and Albert Rivers) have a history of exploitation through timber-getting (Hoop Pine, Red Cedar, cabinet timbers), and farming (sugar cane, bananas, avocadoes, Macadamia Nuts, arrowroot, dairy cattle) which has reduced the extent of rainforest to a small fraction of its original area.

 

Although these “dry” rainforests are listed by EPA as “not of concern” with regard to their management and biodiversity status), these habitats are critically endangered south of Brisbane in the high growth corridor. Dry rainforests on basalt are adequately protected at present, but are very poorly conserved on metamorphics such as here at Bahrs Scrub. The rapid rate of clearing in the past for farming is now being replaced by the urban expansion.

 

Fontainea venosa has an Approved Conservation Advice developed by Environment Australia (Australian Gov’t) and approved by the Minister on 16 December 2008. In the advice, the following information is included.

  • There are 5 locations from the Boyne Valley south to Bahrs Scrub and Shaws pocket with a total population of only 200 plants.
  • In the section titled “Regional and local priority actions”, it clearly emphasizes that these populations must not be disturbed to ensure the species’ survival. It states “ensure infrastructure or development activities involving substrate or vegetation disturbance in areas where Fontainea venosa occurs do not adversely impact on known populations”.
  • A recommendation for the plant’s survival states “investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations”. This applies to Bahrs Scrub perfectly as there are 2 populations, one on Bahrs Hill and the other in Bahrs Scrub, both in the study area.

 

The population of Fontainea venosa at Bahrs Scrub is one of two populations of any significant size of the known 5 populations (the other being at Gladstone). Population size is a critical factor in ensuring population health and survival.

 

Croton mamillatus has only 3 known small populations – Bahrs Scrub, Mt French and one near Caboolture. The Bahrs Scrub population is the largest, and it was this population when discovered recently instigated its separation and naming as a distinct species.

 

In the former local government authority’s Nature Conservation Mapping Review (Gold Coast City Council) of November 2003 and February 2005, the Bahrs Scrub rainforests and eucalypt forests were identified as being of “State Significance for Conservation”. This report was prepared for Gold Coast City Council by Chenoweth and Associates.

 

The population of Grevillea helmsiae at Bahrs Scrub is a remote and distinct cluster from the northern population around Bundaberg. It is genetically distinct and from a conservation viewpoint, is a highly significant population.

 

The “Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan, NSW & Qld , May 2009” identifies hotspots of significant biodiversity, including Bahrs Scrub as one such significant area of lowland subtropical rainforest.

      In this report the following points are made relevant to Bahrs Scrub –

  • The fauna of subtropical rainforests is identified as significant.
  • Recommends that refuge areas of rainforest become a focus for revegetating cleared gaps, increasing the size of isolated remnants (including buffering), linking of isolated remnants with larger patches and generally maintaining or improving overall ecosystem functions.
  • Lists Bahrs Scrub as a “community-identified area of interest and a priority for management”.
  • States “Rainforest and related vegetation through the Planning Area has been significantly degraded and fragmented particularly in lower elevation areas. The extent of decline at the landscape level makes it imperative that all remaining areas of rainforest and related vegetation are managed for their conservation values and, where possible, restored toward self-sustaining systems.”

 

On 18 September 1981, Queensland Government (Department of Primary Industries) botanists G. P. Guymer and L.W. Jessup wrote a report on their recent visit to three areas of rainforest at Bahrs Scrub. In this report they made recommendations as outlined below.

 

“We suggest that the conservation of these rainforest communities be given a high priority for the following reasons:

  1. The three areas of rainforest represent one of the last remaining undisturbed subtropical notophyll vine forests (Araucaria) within 50 km of Brisbane.
  2. The communities to our knowledge are floristically unique. We know of no other rainforests in Queensland dominated by Dissiliaria baloghioides.
  3. The rainforests of Bahrs Scrub contain one of the last remaining natural populations of Macadamia integrifolia and its importance as a gene pool for the Macadamia industry cannot be underestimated.
  4. The rainforest contains several rare and uncommon species, viz. Planchonella eerwah, Notelaea johnsonii, Symplocos sp. nov.
  5. A number of species reach their south-eastern limit at Bahrs Scrub, viz. Dissiliaria baloghioides, Symplocos sp. nov., Planchonella eerwah, Pleogyne australis, Barklya syringifolia, Microcitrus australis.”

 

In his accompanying letter to the Director of National Parks and Wildlife Service, The Director of the Queensland Herbarium R. W. Johnson, wrote “though their visit was of short duration their collections and recorded plant species show that the area is of botanical importance and worthy of protection.”

 

In the DPI “Moreton Region Vegetation Map Series, Summary Report and Species Checklist” (1984), officers W. D. McDonald and Elsol reported on the rainforests and eucalypt forests of Bahrs Scrub. Comments and recommendations are listed below –

  1. “The Bahrs Scrub closed-forest community has both State and regional significance botanically because it contains some plant species which have not been recorded from existing National Parks and Reserves estate. The most noteworthy of these being Planchonella eerwah and Fontainea sp. nov. (venosa).”
  2. “The Bahrs Scrub closed-forest community also contains other noteworthy plant species which are not common elsewhere or for which Bahrs Scrub is the northern or southern limit of their distribution. These significant species are – Notelaea johnsonii, Dissiliaria baloghioides, Barklya syringifolia, Symplocos sp. nov., Pleogyne australis, and Microcitrus australasica.”
  3. “Also of great importance is the occurrence of Macadamia integrifolia as there are few other natural occurrences left elsewhere. Because Macadamia integrifolia and other strains have been grown commercially for the production of the widely renowned Macadamia Nut, the preservation of the Bahrs Scrub genetic pool would be of great importance to this industry as a resource.”
  4. “Araucarian microphyll vine forest as a community is not well represented currently in the Service estate in Queensland, particularly the structural type found in the Bahrs Scrub area. In a regional context its inclusion is important as it will preserve one of the few remaining remnants of this particular community structure type left in southern Queensland.”
  5. “It should be stressed here that the Bahrs Scrub closed forest remnants are ecologically valuable refuges which are fortunately still abutted on three sides by relatively undisturbed eucalypt forest. This eucalypt forest forms a continuous corridor of natural vegetation running south along a range of hills virtually to the foot of Mt Tamborine.”
  6. “The preservation of this area would mean the long term survival of many native fauna which would otherwise be at risk without this corridor.”
  7. “As communities drier rainforests like the Bahrs Scrub type are fast diminishing due to the encroachment of fires, exotic plants and land clearing. Little is known of the dynamics of these communities other than that they are sensitive to disturbance and regrowth is often very slow. For this reason it is important that the Bahrs Scrub closed forest remnants be permanently protected as a scientific resource.”

 

The other vegetation community of Bahrs Scrub is Eucalypt Forest, classified by EPA as –

Regional Ecosystem 12.11.3 Open Forest generally with Eucalyptus siderophloia , Eucalyptus propinqua on metamorphics.

There are substantial areas of eucalypt forest at Bahrs Scrub with relatively high plant diversity especially towards the northern sections of the area.

 

The eucalypt forests are the habitat for three Rare and Threatened flora species under the Queensland  Nature Conservation Act 1992

 

Marsdenia coronata (Forest Milk Vine)         Vulnerable

Sophora fraseri (Scrub Pea Bush)                   Vulnerable

Indigofera baileyi (Bailey’s Indigo)                Rare

 

Two of the above listed species are listed in the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Federal Government). It is –

 

Marsdenia coronata (Forest Milk Vine)         Vulnerable

Sophora fraseri (Scrub Pea Bush)                   Vulnerable

 

The eucalypt forests contain considerable diversity even though they have been subjected to repeated burns and weed invasion. These forests especially between Wuraga Road and Bahrs Scrub Road are in good health mostly with a diverse variety of canopy and understorey species. Below these higher Wuraga Road ridges are some very old growth forests rich in tree hollows which provide habitat for arboreal mammals and birds. Koala scats were sighted here during the surveys at the base of some very tall Eucalyptus microcorys specimens. The canopy here is up to 30 metres tall, comprised of mainly Eucalyptus microcorys, Eucalyptus seeana, Corymbia intermedia and Angophora leiocarpa. During the surveys bird life was common in these forests with Superb Wrens common in areas with a dense understorey of Daviesia umbellulata.

 

Checklist of Plant Species recorded at Bahrs Scrub

 

Listed alphabetically by family.

* indicates an exotic weed species

+ indicates a naturalized native species

 

Acanthaceae

Ajuga australis                                                 Australian Bugle

Brunoniella australis                                        Blue Trumpet

Harnieria hygrophiloides                                 Harnieria

Pseuderanthemum variabile                             Love Flower

Rostellularia adscendens                                  Rostellularia

* Thunbergia alata                                           Black-eyed Susan

 

Adiantaceae

Adiantum atroviride                                         Common Maidenhair Fern

Adiantum hispidulum                                      Rough Maidenhair Fern

Cheilanthes distans                                          Bristle Cloak Fern

Cheilanthes sieberi subsp. sieberi                    Mulga Fern

Pellaea nana                                                     Sickle Fern

Pellaea paradoxa                                              Large-leaved Sickle Fern

 

Amaranthaceae

Deeringia amaranthoides                                 Shrubby Deeringia

 

Anacardiaceae

Euroschinus falcatus var. falcatus                   Ribbonwood

* Schinus terebinthifolius                                Broad-leaved Pepper Tree

 

Annonaceae

Melodorum leichhardtii                                               Zig Zag Vine

Polyalthia nitidissima                                       Polyalthia

 

Apiaceae

Centella asiatica                                               Pennywort

 

Apocynaceae

Alyxia ruscifolia                                              Chain Fruit

Carissa ovata                                                   Currant Bush

Cynanchum bowmanii                                     Bowman’s Milk Vine

* Gomphocarpus physocarpus                                    Balloon Cotton

Hoya australis subsp. australis                         Wax Flower Vine

Marsdenia coronata                                         Forest Milk Vine

Marsdenia flavescens                                      Hairy Milk Vine

Marsdenia pleiadenia                                       Downy Milk Vine

Melodinus acutiflorus                                      Hairy Melodinus

Parsonsia brisbanensis                                     Brisbane Silkpod

Parsonsia longipetiolata                                               Green-leaved Silkpod

Parsonsia paulforsteri                                      Narrow-leaved Silkpod

Parsonsia rotata                                                            Veinless Silkpod

Parsonsia straminea                                         Monkey Rope Vine

Parsonsia velutina                                            Hairy Silkpod

Secamone elliptica                                           Cork Vine

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui                         Banana Bush

 

Araceae

Gymnostachys anceps                                     Settler’s Flax

Spirodela punctata                                           Common Duck-weed

 

Araliaceae

Astrotricha latifolia                                          Silver-leaved Astrotricha

Polyscias elegans                                             Celerywood

Polyscias murrayi                                            Pencil Cedar

+ Schefflera actinophylla                                 Umbrella Tree

 

Araucariaceae

Araucaria cunninghamii                                               Hoop Pine

 

Arecaceae

Calamus muelleri                                             Wait-a-while

* Syagrus romanzoffiana                                 Cocos Palm

 

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia meridionalis                                 Forest Aristolochia

 

Asparagaceae

* Asparagus aethiopicus “Sprengeri”               Asparagus Fern

 

Aspleniaceae  

Asplenium attenuatum var. attenuatum                        Simple Spleenwort

Asplenium australasicum                                 Birds Nest Fern

 

Asteraceae

* Ageratina adenophora                                               Crofton Weed

* Ageratum houstonianum                               Blue Billygoat Weed

* Ambrosia artemisiifolia                                Ragweed

* Baccharis halimifolia                                                Groundsel

* Bidens bipinnata                                           Cobbler’s Pegs

* Bidens pilosa                                                            Cobbler’s Pegs

Brachyscome microcarpa                                a daisy

Cassinia laevis                                                 Narrow-leaved Cough Bush

Cassinia quinquefaria                                      Sticky-leaved Cough Bush

Cassinia subtropica                                          Sneeze Bush

Centratherum punctatum subsp. australianum Pink Daisy Bush

Chrysocephalum apiculatum                           Yellow Buttons

* Cirsium vulgare                                            Spear Thistle

* Conyza bonariensis                                      Hairy Fleabane

* Crassocephalum crepidioides                                   Thickhead

Cyanthillium cinereum                                                Vernonia

Eclipta prostrata                                               White Eclipta

* Emilia sonchifolia var. javanica                    Emilia

Epaltes australis                                                           Epaltes

Euchiton sphaericus                                         a cudweed

Glossocardia bidens                                         Native Cobbler’s Pegs

* Hypochaeris radicata                                                Dandelion Flatweed

* Leontodon taraxacoides subsp. taraxacoides            Hairy Hawkbit

* Montanoa hibiscifolia                                               a daisy

Olearia nernstii                                                            Snowbush

Ozothamnus diosmifolius                                Sago Bush

Picris angustifolia subsp. carolorum-henricorum         Hawk Weed

Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum                                    Jersey Cudweed

Pterocaulon redolens                                       Pineapple Daisy

* Senecio madagascariensis                             Fireweed

* Sigesbeckia orientalis                                                Indian Weed

* Tagetes minuta                                              Stinking Roger

Vittadinia hispidulum                                      Hairy Burr Daisy

 

Azollaceae

Azolla pinnata                                                 Azolla Fern

 

Bignoniaceae

Pandorea jasminoides                                      Bower Vine

Pandorea floribunda                                        Yellow Wonga Vine

 

Blechnaceae

Blechnum cartilagineum                                  Gristle Fern

Doodia aspera                                                  Prickly Rasp Fern

Doodia caudata                                                            Rasp Fern

Doodia media                                                  Common Rasp Fern

 

Boraginaceae

Ehretia acuminata                                            Koda

 

Brassicaceae

* Lepidium didymum                                      Lesser Water-cress

 

Byttneriaceae

Commersonia bartramia                                               Brown Kurrajong

Commersonia fraseri                                       Brush Kurrajong

 

Cactaceae

* Opuntia sp                                                    a cactus

 

Caesalpiniaceae

Barklya syringifolia                                         Crown of Gold

Caesalpinia subtropica                                     Corky Prickle Vine

* Senna didymobotrya                                     a cassia

* Senna pendula var. glabrata                          Easter Cassia

 

Campanulaceae

Lobelia gibbosa                                                           Tall Lobelia

Lobelia purpurascens                                       White Root

Wahlenbergia gracilis                                       Australian Bluebell

Wahlenbergia stricta                                        Tall Bluebell

 

Capparaceae

Capparis arborea                                              Native Caper

Capparis sarmentosa                                        Scrambling Caper

 

Casuarinaceae

Allocasuarina littoralis                                     Black She-Oak

Allocasuarina torulosa                                     Forest Oak

 

Celastraceae

Celastrus subspicata                                         Large-leaved Staff Vine

Denhamia celastroides                                     Denhamia

Denhamia pittosporoides subsp. pittosporoides           Veiny Denhamia

Elaeodendron australe var. australe                 Red Olive Plum

Hippocratea barbata                                         Knot Vine

Siphonodon australis                                       Ivory Wood

 

Colchicaceae

Iphigenia indica                                                           Iphigenia Lily

 

Commelinaceae

Aneilema acuminatum                                     Tall Aneilema

Aneilema biflorum                                          Aneilema

Commelina diffusa                                          Wandering Jew

Murdannia graminea                                        Slug Herb

 

Cornaceae

Alangium villosum subsp. tomentosum                       Hairy Muskwood

 

Cucurbitacae

Diplocyclos palmatus                                      Native Bryony

Sicyos australis                                                            Star Cucumber

 

Cunoniaceae

Pseudoweinmannia lachnocarpa                                  Rose Marara

 

Cupressaceae

+ Callitris columellaris                                     Coastal Cypress

 

Cyperaceae

Gahnia aspera                                                  Saw Sedge

Cyperus enervis                                                           a sedge

Cyperus polystachyos                                      Bunchy sedge

Cyperus tetraphyllus                                        a sedge

Fimbristylis dichotoma                                                Common Finger Rush

Lepidosperma laterale                                      Variable Sword Sedge

Scleria mackaviensis                                        a sedge

Scleria tricuspidata                                           a sedge

 

Davalliaceae

Davallia pyxidata                                             Hare’s Foot Fern

 

Dennstaedtiaceae

Pteridium esculentum                                      Bracken Fern

 

Dilleniaceae

Hibbertia stricta                                                           Narrow-leaved Guinea Flower

 

Dicksoniaceae

Calochlaena dubia                                           Soft Bracken Fern

 

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea transversa                                        Native Yam

 

Dryopteridaceae

Lastreopsis marginans                                      Glossy Shield Fern

 

Ebenaceae

Diospyros australis                                          Black Plum

Diospyros fasciculosa                                      Grey Ebony

Diospyros geminata                                         Queensland Ebony

Diospyros pentamera                                       Myrtle Ebony

 

Elaeocarpaceae

Elaeocarpus obovatus                                      Hard Quandong

 

Ericaceae

Acrotriche aggregata                                        Red Ground Berry

Leucopogon juniperinus                                              Prickly Heath

Melichrus adpressus                                        Tall Melichrus

Melichrus procumbens                                                Jam Tarts

Monotoca scoparia                                          Monotoca

 

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha nemorum                                         Hairy Acalypha

Alchornea ilicifolia                                          Native Holly

Claoxylon australe                                           Brittlewood

Croton acronychioides                                     Thick-leaved Croton

Croton insularis                                                           Silver Croton

Croton mamillatus                                           Bahrs Scrub Croton

Croton stigmatosus                                          White Croton

Excoecaria dallachyana                                               Brush Poison Tree

Fontainea venosa                                             Veiny Fontainea

Homalanthus nutans                                        Native Bleeding Heart

Mallotus claoxyloides                                      Green Kamala

Mallotus philippensis                                       Red Kamala

* Ricinus communis                                        Castor Oil Plant

Tragia novae-hollandiae                                              Stinging Vine

 

Eupomatiaceae

Eupomatia laurina                                            Bolwarra

 

Fabaceae

Aeschynomene micranthos                              Creeping Pea

Austrosteenisia blackii                                     Blood Vine

Chorizema parviflorum                                               Chorizema

* Crotalaria lanceolata                                     Narrow-leaved Rattlepod

Crotalaria montana                                          Little Rattlepod

* Crotalaria spectabilis                                     a rattlepod

Daviesia ulicifolia                                            Native Gorse

Daviesia umbellulata                                       Native Gorse

Daviesia villifera                                             Small-leaved Daviesia

Derris involuta                                                 Native Derris Vine

Desmodium brachypodum                              Large Tick-trefoil

Desmodium gunnii                                          Slender Tick-trefoil

Desmodium rhytidophyllum                            Rusty Tick-trefoil                                           

Erythrina vespertilio                                        Bat’s Wing Coral Tree

Flemingia parviflora                                        Flemingia

Galactia tenuiflora                                           Galactia

Glycine clandestina var. clandestina                Twining Glycine

Glycine tabacina                                              Glycine Pea

Glycine tomentella                                           Woolly Glycine

Glycine sp. Marburg                                        Brush Glycine

Gompholobium pinnatum                                Poor Man’s Gold

Hardenbergia violacea                                     False Sarsaparilla Vine

Hovea acutifolia                                              Purple Pea Bush

Hovea heterophylla                                         Narrow-leaved Hovea

Indigofera australis                                          Australian Indigo

Indigofera baileyi                                            Bailey’s Indigo

* Indigofera suffruticosa                                 Orange Indigo

Jacksonia scoparia                                           Dogwood

Kennedia rubicunda                                        Dusky Coral Pea

Lagenophora gracilis                                        Lagenophora

* Macroptilium atropurpureum                                    Siratro

* Macrotyloma axillare var. axillare                Horse Gram

Podolobium scandens                                      Creeping Shaggy Pea

Pultenaea euchila                                             Orange Pultenaea

Pultenaea petiolaris                                          Narrow-leaved Pea

Pultenaea spinosa                                            Spiny-leaved Pea

Pultenaea villosa                                              Hairy Pea Bush

Rhynchosia acuminatissima                             Ryncho

Rhynchosia minima                                         Yellow Rhynchosia

Sesbania cannabina                                         Yellow Pea Bush

Swainsona galegifolia                                      Darling Pea

Tephrosia filipes                                              Little Tephrosia

Zornia dictyocarpa                                           Narrow-leaved Zornia

 

Flagellariaceae

Flagellaria indica                                              Whip Vine

 

Gentianaceae

Schenkia australis                                            Spike Centaury

 

Goodeniaceae

Goodenia bellidifolia subsp. argentea              Tall Goodenia

Goodenia hederacea                                        Ivy Goodenia

Goodenia rotundifolia                                     Round-leaved Goodenia

Velleia spathulata                                            Velleia

 

Haloragaceae

Myriophyllum sp.                                            a milfoil

 

Hemerocallidaceae

Dianella brevipedunculata                               Short-flowered Flax Lily

Dianella caerulea var. assera                            Blueberry Flax Lily

Dianella caerulea var. caerulea                                    Blueberry Lily

Dianella congesta                                             Dune Flax Lily

Dianella longifolia                                           Blue Flax Lily

Geitonoplesium cymosum                               Scrambling Lily

 

Hypoxidaceae

Curculigo ensifolia                                          Little Weevil Plant

 

Iridaceae

Patersonia sericea                                            Native Iris

 

Johnsoniaceae

Tricoryne elatior                                              Yellow Rush Lily

 

Lamiaceae

Anisomeles malabarica                                                Anisomeles

Clerodendrum floribundum                             Lollybush

Plectranthus parviflorus                                               Forest Plectranthus

Teucrium argutum                                           Teucrium

Vitex lignum-vitae                                           Lignum-vitae

 

Lauraceae

Cassytha filiformis                                          Dodder Laurel

Cassytha pubescens                                         Hairy Dodder

* Cinnamomum camphora                              Camphor Laurel

Cryptocarya triplinervis                                               Three-veined Laurel

Cryptocarya sp. World’s End Pocket               Totem Pole

 

Laxmanniaceae

Cordyline congesta                                          Palm Lily

Eustrephus latifolius                                        Wombat Berry

Lomandra confertifolia subsp. pallida             Narrow-leaved Mat Rush

Lomandra filiformis                                        Fine-leaved Mat Rush

Lomandra hystrix                                            Creek Mat Rush

Lomandra laxa                                                 a Mat Rush

Lomandra longifolia                                        Long-leaved Mat Rush

Lomandra multiflora subsp. multiflora                        Many-flowered Mat Rush

 

Loganiaceae

Strychnos psilosperma                                     Strychnine Tree

 

Loranthaceae

Amyema conspicua subsp. conspicua             Alphitonia Mistletoe

Amyema miquelii                                            Bronze Mistletoe

Amylotheca dictyophleba                                Brush Mistletoe

Dendrophthoe vitellina                                                Apostle Mistletoe

 

Malvaceae

Hibiscus heterophyllus                                                Native Rosella

Hibiscus splendens                                          Pink Hibiscus

* Sida cordifolia                                              Flannel Weed

* Sida rhombifolia                                           Sida Retusa

 

Meliaceae

Dysoxylum fraserianum                                              Rosewood

Dysoxylum mollissimum subsp. molle                        Red Bean

Melia azedarach                                               White Cedar

Owenia venosa                                                            Rose Almond

Toona ciliata                                                    Red Cedar

 

Menispermaceae

Legnephora moorei                                          Round-leaved Vine

Echinostephia aculeata                                                Prickly Tape Vine

Pleogyne australis                                            Pleogyne

Stephania japonica                                           Tape Vine

Tinospora smilacina                                         Tinospora Vine

 

Menyanthaceae

Nymphoides indica                                          Water Snowflake

 

Mimosaceae

Acacia bakeri                                                   Marblewood

Acacia concurrens                                           Late-flowering Black Wattle

Acacia disparrima                                            Hickory Wattle

Acacia falcata                                                  Sickle-leaved Wattle

Acacia fimbriata                                              Brisbane Wattle

Acacia glaucocarpa                                          Fern-leaved Wattle

Acacia implexa                                                            Lightwood

Acacia leiocalyx                                              Early-flowering Black Wattle

Acacia maidenii                                                           Maiden’s Wattle

Acacia melanoxylon                                        Blackwood

* Leucaena leucocephala                                 Leucaena

Neptunia gracilis                                              Native Sensitive Plant

 

Moraceae

Ficus coronata                                                 Creek Sandpaper Fig

Ficus fraseri                                                     Sandpaper Fig

Ficus macrophylla                                           Moreton Bay Fig

Ficus obliqua                                                   Small-leaved Fig

Ficus rubiginosa                                               Rock Fig

Ficus superba var. henneana                            Superb Fig

Ficus virens subsp. lanceolata                          White Fig

Maclura cochinchinensis                                 Cockspur Thorn

Streblus brunonianus                                       Whalebone Tree

Trophis scandens subsp. scandens                   Burny Vine

 

Myoporaceae

Eremophila debilis                                           Winter Apple

Myoporum montanum                                     Mountain Boobialla

Trophis scandens subsp. scandens                   Burny Vine

 

Myrsinaceae

Embelia australiana                                          Embelia

Myrsine variabilis                                            Muttonwood

 

Myrtaceae

Acmena smithii                                                            Lillipilli

Angophora leiocarpa                                       Smooth-barked Apple

Angophora woodsiana                                     Smudgee

Choricarpia subargentea                                              Giant Ironwood

Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata               Spotted Gum

Corymbia henryi                                              Large-leaved Spotted Gum

Corymbia intermedia                                       Pink Bloodwood

Corymbia tessellaris                                         Moreton Bay Ash

+ Corymbia torelliana                                      Cadagi

Decaspermum humile                                      Silky Myrtle

Eucalyptus acmenoides                                               White Mahogany

Eucalyptus carnea                                            Broad-leaved White Mahogany

Eucalyptus crebra                                            Narrow-leaved Ironbark

Eucalyptus dura                                                           Smooth-branched Ironbark

Eucalyptus fibrosa subsp. fibrosa                    Broad-leaved Ironbark

Eucalyptus microcorys                                                Tallow-Wood

Eucalyptus moluccana                                     Gum-topped Box

Eucalyptus propinqua                                      Small-fruited Grey Gum

Eucalyptus seeana                                           Fine-leaved Red Gum

Eucalyptus siderophloia                                               Grey Ironbark

Eucalyptus tereticornis                                     Forest Red Gum

Eucalyptus tindaliae                                         Queensland White Mahogany

* Eugenia uniflora                                           Brazilian Cherry

Gossia bidwillii                                                            Python Tree

Gossia hillii                                                      Scaly Myrtle

Leptospermum polygalifolium                         Wild May

Lophostemon confertus                                               Brush Box

Lophostemon suaveolens                                Swamp Box

Melaleuca bracteata                                         Black Tea Tree

Melaleuca nodosa                                            Prickly-leaved Paperbark

Melaleuca quinquenervia                                 Coastal Paperbark

Melaleuca salicina                                           Willow Bottlebrush

Melaleuca viminalis                                         Weeping Bottlebrush

* Psidium guajava                                            Guava

Rhodamnia dumicola                                       Malletwood

Rhodomyrtus psidioides                                              Native Guava

Syzygium australe                                            Brush Cherry

 

Nephrolepidaceae

Arthropteris tenella                                          Climbing Fishbone Fern

Nephrolepis cordifolia                                     Fishbone Fern

 

Nymphaeaceae

* Nymphaea caerulea                                      Blue Waterlily

 

Ochnaceae

* Ochna serrulata                                             Ochna

 

Oleaceae

Jasminum simplicifolium subsp. australiense  Native Jasmine

* Ligustrum lucidum                                        Privet

Notelaea johnsonii                                           Veinless Mock-Olive

Notelaea longifolia                                          Long-leaved Mock-Olive

Olea paniculata                                                            Native Olive

 

Onagraceae

* Ludwigia peploides                                       Water Primrose

 

Orchidaceae

Acianthus fornicatus                                        Pixie Caps

Caladenia catenata                                           White Fingers

Corybas barbarae                                             Helmet Orchid

Cymbidium madidum                                      Cymbidium

Cymbidium suave                                            Scented Orchid

Dendrobium monophyllum                             Lily of the Valley Orchid

Dendrobium tetragonum                                  Spider Orchid

Dipodium variegatum                                      Blotched Hyacinth Orchid

Dockrillia bowmanii                                        Straggly Pencil Orchid

Dockrillia linguiformis                                     Tongue Orchid

Geodorum densiflorum                                               Shepherd’s Crook Orchid

Peristeranthus hillii                                          Drooping Tree Orchid

Pterostylis nutans                                             Nodding Greenhood

Pterostylis obtuse                                             Greenhood Orchid

Rhinerrhiza divitiflora                                     Raspy Root Orchid

 

Oxalidaceae

* Oxalis corniculata                                         Yellow Wood Sorrell

 

Passifloraceae

* Passiflora foetida                                          Stinking Passion Flower

* Passiflora suberosa                                       Corky Passion Vine

* Passiflora subpeltata                                     White Passion Flower

 

Petiveriaceae

Monococcus echinophorus                              Monococcus

* Rivina humilis                                              Coral Berry

 

Philydraceae

Philydrum lanuginosum                                               Woolly Frogsmouth

 

Phyllanthaceae

Actephila lindleyi                                            Actephila

Breynia oblongifolia                                        Breynia

Bridelia exaltata                                               Brush Ironbark

Cleistanthus cunninghamii                               Cleistanthus

Glochidion ferdinandi                                     Cheese Tree

Glochidion sumatranum                                              Buttonwood

Phyllanthus gunnii                                           Tall Phyllanthus

Phyllanthus microcladus                                  Small-leaved Phyllanthus

Phyllanthus virgatus                                         Twiggy Phyllanthus

 

Picrodendraceae

Dissiliaria baloghioides                                                Lancewood

 

Piperaceae

Peperomia blanda var. floribunda                    Peperomia

 

Pittosporaceae

Auranticarpa rhombifolia                                Diamond-leaved Pittosporum

Bursaria spinosa                                              Blackthorn

Hymenosporum flavum                                               Native Frangipani

Pittosporum multiflorum                                  Orange Thorn

Pittosporum revolutum                                                Forest Pittosporum

Pittosporum viscidum                                      Black-fruited Thornbush

 

Poaceae

Alloteropsis semialata                                      Cockatoo Grass

Aristida benthamii var. benthamii                    a Wiregrass

Aristida calycina var. calycina                         Dark Wiregrass

Axonopus compressus                                     Broad-leaved Carpet Grass

Bothriochloa decipiens var. decipiens             Pitted Bluegrass

Brachiaria decumbens                                     Signal Grass

Capillipedium spicigerum                                Scented Top

* Chloris gayana                                              Rhodes Grass

Chrysopogon sylvaticus                                               a grass

Cymbopogon refractus                                                Barbwire Grass

* Cynodon dactylon                                        Green Couch

Dichelachne micrantha                                                Shorthair Plumegrass

* Digitaria didactyla                                         Blue Couch

Digitaria parviflora                                          Small-flowered Fingergrass

Entolasia marginata                                          a fingergrass

Entolasia stricta                                                            Wiry Panic

Eragrostis spartinoides                                     a Lovegrass

Eremochloa bimaculata                                               Poverty Grass

Heteropogon contortus                                                Black Speargrass

Imperata cylindrica                                          Blady Grass

* Megathyrsus maximus var, maximus                        Guinea Grass

* Melinis minutiflora                                       Molasses Grass

* Melinis repens                                              Red Natal Grass

Microlaena stipoides var. stipoides                  Weeping Grass

Oplismenus aemulus                                        Creeping Beard Grass

Oplismenus hirtellus subsp. imbecillis             Pademelon Grass

Ottochloa gracillima                                         Graceful Grass

Panicum effusum var. simile                           a panic grass

Panicum maximum                                          a panic grass

* Paspalum dilatatum                                       Paspalum

* Paspalum urvillei                                          Vasey Grass

Paspalidium gausum                                        a grass

Sporobolus creber                                            a grass

Themeda triandra                                             Kangaroo Grass

Urochloa decumbens                                       a grass

 

Polygalaceae

Polygala japonica                                             Polygala

* Polygala paniculata                                       White Polygala

 

Polypodiaceae

Drynaria rigidula                                              Basket Fern

Platycerium bifurcatum                                               Elkhorn Fern

Platycerium superbum                                     Staghorn Fern

Pyrrosia confluens                                           Robber Fern

 

Proteaceae

Banksia integrifolia subsp. integrifolia             Coastal Banksia

Grevillea helmsiae                                           Helm’s Silky Oak

Grevillea hilliana                                             White Yiel-Yiel

Grevillea robusta                                             Silky Oak

Macadamia integrifolia                                                Macadamia Nut Tree

Persoonia sericea                                             Hairy Geebung

Stenocarpus salignus                                        Scrub Beefwood

Stenocarpus sinuatus                                       Wheel of Fire Tree

 

Pteridaceae

Pteris tremula                                                   Tender Brake                          

 

Putranjivaceae

Drypetes deplanchei                                        Yellow Tulip

 

Ranunculaceae

Clematis glycinoides                                        Headache Vine

 

Rhamnaceae

Alphitonia excelsa                                           Soap Tree

Cryptandra longistaminea                                Cryptandra

 

Ripogonaceae

Ripogonum album                                           White Supplejack

Ripogonum brevifolium                                              Small-leaved Supplejack

 

Rosaceae

Rubus moluccanus                                          Molucca Raspberry

Rubus parvifolius                                            Pink Flowered Native Raspberry

 

Rubiaceae

Atractocarpus chartaceus                                 Narrow-leaved Gardenia

Coelospermum paniculatum var. paniculatum Coelospermum

Cyclophyllum coprosmoides                           Coastal Canthium

Everistia vaccinifolia var. nervosa                   Small-leaved Canthium

Hodgkinsonia ovatiflora                                              Hodgkinsonia

Ixora beckleri                                                  Native Ixora

Morinda canthoides                                         Veiny Morinda

Opercularia diphylla                                        Opercularia

Pavetta australiensis                                         Pavetta

Pomax umbellata                                             Pomax

Psychotria daphnoides                                     Small-leaved Psychotria

Psychotria loniceroides                                                Hairy-leaved Psychotria

Psydrax odorata forma buxifolia                                 Stiff Canthium

Psydrax odorata forma odorata                                    Shiny-leaved Canthium

* Richardia brasiliensis                                                White Eye

Spermacoce brachystema                                Stiff-leaved Spermacoce

Spermacoce multicaulis                                               Spermacoce

 

Rutaceae

Acronychia laevis                                            Glossy Acronychia

Acronychia pauciflora                                     Soft Acronychia

Bosistoa pentacocca var. pentacocca               Ferny-leaved Bosistoa

Citrus australasica                                            Finger Lime

Citrus australis                                                 Wild Lime

Coatesia paniculata                                          Axebreaker

Flindersia australis                                           Crows Ash

Flindersia bennettiana                                      Bennett’s Ash

Flindersia schottiana                                        Bumpy Ash

Flindersia xanthoxyla                                      Long Jack; Yellow Wood

Pentaceras australis                                          Penta Ash

Sarcomelicope simplicifolia subsp. simplicifolia         Yellow Aspen

Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum                                    Thorny Yellow-wood

Zieria smithii                                                    Sandfly Bush

 

Santalaceae

Exocarpos cupressiformis                                Native Cherry

Exocarpos latifolius                                         Broad-leaved Cherry

 

Sapindaceae

Alectryon connatus                                          Small-leaved Alectryon

Alectryon subcinereus                                     Wild Quince

Alectryon subdentatus                                     Hard Alectryon

Alectryon tomentosus                                      Hairy Alectryon

Arytera  distylis                                                           Twin-leaved Coogera

Arytera divaricata                                            Coogera

Arytera foveolata                                             Pitted Coogera

Atalaya multiflora                                            Broad-leaved Whitewood

Atalaya salicifolia                                            Brush Whitewood

Cupaniopsis anacardioides                              Tuckeroo

Cupaniopsis parvifolia                                     Small-leaved Tuckeroo

Diploglottis campbellii                                     Small-leaved Tamarind

Dodonaea triquetra                                          Forest Hop Bush

Dodonaea viscosa var. viscosa                                    Sticky Hop Bush

Elattostachys xylocarpa                                               White Tamarind

Guioa semiglauca                                            Wild Quince

Harpullia hillii                                                  Blunt-leaved Tulip

Harpullia pendula                                            Tulipwood

Jagera pseudorhus var. pseudorhus                 Foambark

Mischocarpus anodontus                                 Veiny Pear-fruit

Mischocarpus pyriformis                                 Yellow Pear-fruit

Rhysotoechia bifoliolata          subsp. bifoliolata        Two-leaved Tuckeroo

Toechima tenax                                                           Pitted-leaved Steelwood

 

Sapotaceae

Planchonella eerwah                                        Shiny-leaved Coondoo

Planchonella myrsinifolia                                Blunt-leaved Coondoo

Planchonella pohlmaniana                               Yellow Boxwood

 

Scrophulariaceae

Artanema fimbriatum                                      Koala Bells

* Bacopa lanigera                                            a Bacopa

Veronica plebeia                                              Trailing Speedwell

 

Simaroubaceae

Ailanthus triphysa                                            White Bean

 

Smilacaceae

Smilax australis                                                            Barbed-wire Vine

                                               

Solanaceae

Duboisia myoporoides                                     Corkwood

* Solanum mauritianum                                               Wild Tobacco

Solanum mentiens                                           Bahrs Scrub Devil’s Needles

* Solanum nigrum                                           Nightshade

* Solanum seaforthianum                                Climbing Nightshade

Solanum shirleyanum                                      Straggling Nightshade

Solanum stelligerum                                        Devil’s Needles

 

Sparrmanniaceae

Grewia latifolia                                                            Dog’s Balls

 

Sterculiaceae

Argyrodendron trifoliolatum                            White Booyong

Sterculia quadrifida                                         Peanut Tree

 

Symplocaceae

Symplocos harroldii                                         Hairy Hazelwood

 

Thelypteridaceae       

Christella dentata                                             Creek Fern

 

Thymelaeaceae

Pimelea linifolia                                               Rice Flower

Wikstroemia indica                                          Tie Bush

 

Typhaceae

Typha orientalis                                                           Bulrush

 

Ulmaceae

Aphananthe philippinensis                              Rough-leaved Elm

Trema tomentosa                                             Poison Peach

 

Urticaceae

Dendrocnide photinophylla                             Shiny-leaved Stinging Tree

Pipturus argenteus                                            Native Mulberry

 

Verbenaceae

* Lantana camara                                            Lantana

* Lantana montevidensis                                 Creeping Lantana

* Verbena bonariensis                                     Purple Top

* Verbena litoralis                                           Common Verbena

 

Violaceae

Hybanthus stellarioides                                                Orange Spade Flower

Viola banksii                                                   Ivy-leaved Violet

 

Vitaceae

Cayratia acris                                                   Hairy Water Vine

Cayratia clematidea                                         Slender Grape

Cissus antarctica                                              Kangaroo Vine

Clematicissus opaca                                         Forest Grape

Tetrastigma nitens                                            Native Grape

 

Zingiberaceae

Alpinia caerulea                                               Native Ginger

 

 

 

Unique flora of Bahrs Scrub

bahrs05The rotating images show some of the unique plants that make the biodiversity of Bahrs Scrub unique and valuable landscape. All flora images have been provided by Glenn Leiper whose botanical skills are greatly appreciated by all members of the conservation community. He is a contributing  author of the well known books Mangroves to Mountains book 1 and Mangroves to Mountains book 2.

Some of the vegetation here is not found anywhere else in South East Queensland (or the world). We are all familiar with the Queensland macadamia tree (Macadamia integrifolia) however the plants growing in the wild have a different genetic make up to those being grown commercially in the horticultural - food industry. It is important to protect the genetic biodiversity to ensure longterm survival and adaption.

The Queensland macadamia nut industry began in Hawaii where our bushtucker food production on a commercial scale began with plants exported from Queensland. Macadamia integrifolia is a vulnerable rainforest tree, listed under Queenland’s Nature Conservation Act and under the Federal Government's EPBC Act.

It is a fair dinkum “bush tucker” plant.

Read more: Unique flora of Bahrs Scrub